All species are thallose, typically organized as a thick central costa (midvein), each side with a broad wing of tissue one cell in thickness.

Members of this family are quite common on banks in alongside damp shady parts of tracks.


Pallavicinia tenuinervis

Found on damp shady banks.

The margin of the frond is always toothed.


Pallavicinia xiphoides

In this image the Pallavicinia is the one with the strap-like leaves. You would need a hand lens to see the toothed leaf edge.

The two upright structures are developing sporophytes, enclosed in a clear gelatinous substance.

It is found growing on soil and banks in damp shady areas.


A closer view, showing the developing sporophytes and the toothed leaf edge.


Symphyogyna hymenophyllum

Found on shady damp banks.

The frond divides into two and then two again to give a fan-shape to the thallus.

This species could be mistaken for Hymenophyton flabellatum.


This shows a male plant of Symphyogyna hymenophyllum with antheridia arranged along the sides of the midribs..


A female plant with developing sporophytes.


liverwort index